APA Citation Reminders

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Links to APA Resources

General Reminders

  • Cite all Media, even if you are the author; this makes it clear that you have addressed all citations
  • Parenthetical and Narrative citations have slightly different requirements. View the resources above for specific examples. The table below highlights a few examples only.

In-Text Citations

Parenthetical CitationNarrative Citation
Parenthetical citation to a whole textual work (e.g. a book or an article):
(Mattingly et al., 2012) or (Cope & Kalantzis, 2019)
Narrative citation to a whole textual work:
Cope and Kalantzis (2019) conclude that… (note the difference – in the parenthetical citation, it would be (Cope & Kalantzis, 2019)
Repeat the year even if citing a source more than once in the same paragraph for the parenthetical citation.Do not repeat the year if referencing a source more than once in the same paragraph for the narrative citation.
Specific pages in a textual work where an idea is represented, or a direct quote. Except when you are pointing to an idea which is encompassed by a whole text, direct people to specific pages. Do this whenever possible, a reference to specific pages is more accurate and helpful. Direct quotes must cite a specific page or pages.
(Tzirides, 2020, pp. 27-28)
Multiple narrative references to whole works.
Mattingly et al. (2012), Cope and Kalantzis (2019), and Tzirides (2020) agree …
Parenthetical citation to a video within the text. It is important that videos are introduced and integrated into an argument in the same way that direct quotes would be. Particularly when videos are long, the citation should be to a timestamped range. Include videos in the reference list.
(Francis, 2018, 15:45-16.07)
Narrative video citation:
Francis (2019, 15:45-16.07) states …
In-text video caption: Cite the author in the caption
Fig. 7: Kara Francis speaks about the role of senses of community in learning (Francis 2019).
In-text video caption: write something about the video, which describes its contents or offers your reason for including it, then parenthetical citation that points to the full citation reference list:

Media Citations

  • If media (e.g. image, table etc.) is from a book, journal article etc., include parenthetical citation in caption that points to a full citation in the reference list:

Fig. 8: Mattingly’s model of authentic assessment: (Mattingly 2021, p. 17)

  • If media is an image, infographic, or site on the web, be sure to acknowledge the source, but do not include in the reference list unless you want to cite a larger work of which it is a part:

End-of-Work Reference Listing

  • Books, Journal Articles, Conference Proceedings etc.

As per APA (book titles and article titles only have the first word capitalized; journal titles and volumes are capitalized and italicized)

  • Websites: See APA guideline for different circumstances:
  • Video: select a principal creator as “author”, for instance, the main person who appears on a video,  the video direct, the organization that initiated the video etc.

Robinson, K. (2006). Ken Robinson: How school kills creativity [Video]. TED Conferences. http://www.ted.com/talks/ken_robinson_says_schools_kill_creativity.html

*Videos that are embedded do not require a listing in the references because there is a direct link.

  • Podcasts are treated much the same way, except you use the identifier [Audio file].
  • If an archived webinar is recoverable online, it can be cited as an online video as well. For example:

Axe, J., & Bell, T. (2017, March 27). Lunch and learn: Giving feedback on student writing [Webinar]. Royal Roads University. https://livestream.com/royalroads/events/7167907/videos/15278262

Examples from Admin Update 1B